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Their places of origin are, from right to left: Uar (Hephthalites); Persia; Baekje; Qiuci; Wo (Japan); Langkasuka; Dengzhi (邓至) of Qiang ethnic from Ngawa; Zhouguke (周古柯), Hebatan (呵跋檀), Humidan (胡密丹), Baiti (白題, of similar Hephthalite stocks), whom dwell close to Hephthalite; Mo (Qiemo). - WikipidiA
Langkasuka (-langkha Sanskrit for "resplendent land". sukkha of "bliss") was an ancient Hindu-Buddhism kingdom. After several times making archaeological exploration and selected sites excavation in Prawae village and Ban wat village in the district of Yarang, Patani province, southern Thailand and after the studying of ancient documents scattered in different countries, the historians have the opinion that Kingdom of Langkasuka existed in between 2nd-14th century AD. located somewhere in the Malay peninsula from Kra Isthmus (now in Thailand) to present day of Malaysia northern states. The scanty written scripts and the limitation of archaeological evidences had become the causes of different interpretation and different opinion regarding the Kingdom of Langkasuka’s location.

The trace of old moat at Ban Prawae,Yarang site
The bloody endless conflicts between the Siamese and Patani Malays since the Siamese extended her boundary to the Malay peninsula in the south brought the two nations to the extreme political bias, historical hijacking and a forever hash enemy of one another. Some of Thai historians after studying of many Chinese accounts believed that Langkasuka must be somewhere in Maekloang-Tacheen river basin in Nakhonchaisri district, Nakhonpathom province in the middle part of now Thailand , some Kedah historians suggested that Kedah was the capital of Langkasuka before moving to Patani in Yarang district , some Kelantan historians believed that the capital city of Langkasuka is in Tanah Merah in the state of now Kelantan, while the local historians convince themselves by the archaeological remains in Yarang district which supported by many outstanding south east Asia historians .
     The art work of  the mason believed to be in Langkasuka period, excavated at Yarang site
The objective of historical studies(bias) of the kingdom of Langkasuka thus, for the interest and dignity of their own nations regardless of truthfulness, facts and  evidences; un-intentionally become the victims of political supremacy, aggressive border crossing barbaric war, domination the other smaller or weaker wealthier nations and to maintain and pursue their long lasting imperial power and supremacy in the region, the patriotic history were ordered to be written by the greater powerful kingdom both North and South of Langkasuka–Patani kingdom as the proverb goes “the history always written by the conqueror”.
Remark : Thai and Thailand term are used from Phiboonsongkram period onward prior  to this periodSiamese and Siam are used to denote the same meaning that is Thai People and Thailand.
Patani Malay (Orang Melayu )in the South of Thailand is a series of articles about the current unrest(started on January 4,2004) in the present day southern border provinces of Thailand(Patani).The objective of this presentation is to uncover and discover the facts of the problem, to analyse the root causes of the conflict, current situation and possible solution in order to end the conflict.



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