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Langkasuka: Foreign Records

Langkasuka: Foreign Records
The historians had a different opinions and theories about the existence and location of Langkasuka, the lost Hindu-Buddhist kingdom on the Malay peninsula. Of these 4 locations, one of them believed to be the capital of Langkasuka and the rest may have some connection with Langkasuka more or less:-
1.Bujang Valley, Kedah( now in Malaysia northern state)
2.Tanah Merah, Kelantan (now in Malaysia northern state)
3.Ligor( Nakhorn Sri Thamarat, now in Thailand South)
4.Yanrang, Patani province(now in Thailand Southern most)
Some of  foreign accounts related to Langkasuka are as follow:-
Langkasuka 's Ambassador to China,
Painting of Liang Dynasty 6th Century AD
-Chi Tu Gou Ji( Record of the kingdom of the Red Earth) written by Sui Chinese dynasty’s envoy who visited the peninsula in 607-610 AD. This become a very important documentary evidence to support the inland kingdom name Chi-tu(Red earth)’s location in Kelantan upriver area.
-The history of Liang Dynasty 502-566 AD seem to supported a Malay tradition that Lang Ya Shu(Langkasuka) was found at the end of the first century AD located now in Yarang ancient city, Patani province, Thailand.
-Chinese records written by Chang Chun during the reign of the 7th century Sui Emperor Yang Di, spoke of a kingdom called Lang Ya Shu in Chinese, identifiable as Langkasuka in Malay. Chang Chun described Langkasuka as one of the earliest individual states in South East Asia, a Malay Kingdom.
-. Hikayat Marong Maha Wangsa or Kedah Annals described Langkasuka as covering the Isthmus, from the port of Patani to Kedah, the centre of the kingdom located at Gunung Jerai , Kedah (now in Federation of Malaysia.
The Jalae Excavation site believed to be the basement of Pagoda
-A Chinese book name Pei Su and Sei Su noted about the location of Langkasuka in accordance with the Golden Khersonese, a book written by Paul Wheatley and Negara Kertagama a book written by Prapanca, a Buddhist monk from Majapahit empire, both point out that Langkasuka territory extended to the south as far as Kelantan and Trangganu, now in Malaysia).
- Chao-Ju-Kua recorded in 1225 AD “ From Tambralinga (Nakhorn Sri Thammarat) to Langkasuka by sea route in 6 days and night, there’s also the land route”
Wue Pei Chih placed Lang his-chia(Langkasuka) to the south of Songkhla(Singora) up to Patani river.
The Rajendra Chola copper plate (1030-1031) mentioned about the conquest of eastern coast of the Malay peninsula , I langka soka(langsuka), Tambrlingga(Nakhorn Sri Thammarat) were under his power for 20 Years.



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