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The Ancient City of Yarang (Benja Lima)

The ancient city of Yarang is located in the governing area of Tambon (sub-district) Wat and Tambon Yarang , Yarng district, Patani province. Traveling to the ancient city, one can use the route of Siroros(highway 401) from Patani province down to Yala province. At 15 kilometers , turn left at the cross road to highway 405 (Yarang-Mayo) and then turn left again or turn north at 1.2 kilometers, about 400 meters from highway 405 is the ancient city of Baan Jalek, it lie about 16.6 kilometers from Patani down town.
The Ancient City of Yarang
The ancient city of Yarang was one of the biggest communities in the early historical period in the south of Thailand and believed to be the location of the ancient domain name “ Langkasuka” or “Langkasiao”. Refer to historical evidence appeared in the contemporary documents of China, Java, Malaysia and Arabia, it showed that the ancient city of Yarang was an important city near the sea with extensive territory. It used to be a wealthy land and often played very important roles in politics and economics to nearby lands. Goods were traded widely such as woods, egalloch, cinnamon, camphor etc. with foreign traders since 12th century Buddhist era (6-7th AD). The prosperity had been developed continuously over several periods of hundred years. There was evidence in the form of dikes, moats, and traces of ancient mounds in the area of Yarang district, Patani province.
For the shape of ancient city of Yarang, it was estimated that the city’s plan was big in an oval shape covering nine square kilometers . It was the city which built overlappingly and consisted of three cities connected to each other from the area of Tambon Wat to the north in the area of Tambon Yarang which consisted of :-
1. The ancient city of Baan Wat   Its center was a square yard in the middle of the city surrounded with moats with more than 25 ancient mounds, especially in the west and north in the compound of Baan Jalek.
2. The ancient city of Baan Jalek   Its center was at pond surrounded with quadrilateral moats and it was next to the ancient city of Baan Wat about one kilometer to the north
3. The Ancient City of Baan Prawae  Small moat and mound. The city’s plan was an uneven-quadrilateral shape. There was soil citadels both in four corners of the city and there was a waterway which was connected with an ancient moat of Baan Jalek at the northern corner of the city on both side.
Beyond the traces of moats and mounds of the three ancient cities, with in this group of ancient cities, not less than thirty ancient mounds were scattered.

The Base of Buddhist Pagoda
Excavated at Baan Jalek No. 3

The Pamphlet of  Excavation and Renovation of Yarang Ancient City Project, Patani Province.
Office of Archaeology and National Museum - Zone No.10,   Songkhla Province
Fine Arts Department


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